For Your Beloveds

Research Services in Collaboration with CBNU Toxicology Lab. for Approval & Paper Publication

Regulation of growth, development & differentiation

Growth & development
- Normal animals
Body weight, height, bone (femur) length, growth factors (insulin-like growth factor-1), activity, reflection, vaginal opening, testicular descent, hair growth
Brain activation
- Normal animals
- Scopolamine
Learning/memory, concentration
Stamina enhancement
- Treadmill running
- Water swimming
Maximum exercise, maximum swimming time, muscle fiber distribution, citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]), testosterone, sperm count, sperm motility, glutathione (GSH), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD] /glutathione peroxidase [GPx]/glutathione reductase [GR]/glutathione S-transferase [GST]/catalase)
Blood rehydration of ion drinks
- Fasting/treadmill running
Blood volume increase, hematocrit (packed cell volume [PCV]), preference

Metabolism (regulation of endocrine system)

- High-fat diet(HFD)
- Diet-induced obesity(DIO) rat
Body weight, body fats, blood lipids (triglycerides [TG]), leptin, liver microscopic findings (steatosis), liver function indices
Regulation of blood glucose
- Type I streptozotocin
- Type II db/db mice
Blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, glucose tolerance, blood lipids, retinopathy, aldose reductase (AR) activity
Erectile improvement
- Corpus carvernosum
- Hot water impotence
- Normal animals
Corpus cavernosum dilatation, Intracavernosum pressure, mounting & intromission, sexual organ weight, blood testosterone, sperm count, sperm motility, sperm deformity
Improvement of prostate enlargement
- Castration + testosterone
Prostate/seminal vesicle weight ratio, microscopic findings (hyperplasia, epithelium height, intraprostate diameter), 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentration
Osteoporosis improvement
- Ovariectomy
Bone density, bone strength, cortical thickness, calcium & phosphorus concentrations

Protection against harmful substances

Hangover relief
- 20% Ethanol
- Ethanol/HFD
Blood alcohol & aldehyde concentrations, gastric ulcer, fatty liver, alcohol-degrading enzymes (alcohol dehydrogenase/aldehyde dehydrogenase/cytochrome P-450 type 2E1/catalase)
Organophosphate detoxification
- Paraoxon
- Diisopropylfluoro-phosphate
Enzyme (cholinesterase) inhibition, survivability, convulsion, brain injury, learning/memory
Dioxin detoxification
- Normal guinea pig
- Pregnant C57BL/6
Testicular toxicity (sperm count, sperm motility, sperm deformity, microscopic findings), hepatotoxicity (microscopic findings), prevention of fetal defects (cleft palate, hydronephrosis, delayed growth)
Cyanide detoxification
Survivability, cyanhemoglobin
Hepatic function improvement
- CCl4
- Acetaminophen
- Iron-dextran
Bromosulfalein (BSP) excretion & clearance, hepatic injury indices (ALT/AST/LDH), biliary retention indices (alkaline phosphatase [ALP] /γ-glutamyl transpeptidase [γ-GTP]/bilirubin), microscopic findings (hepatocytic necrosis), lipid peroxidation (TBARS)
Liver fibrosis / cirrhosis improvement
- CCl4
- Iron-dextran
BSP excretion & clearance, hepatic injury indices (ALT/AST/LDH), biliary retention indices (ALP/γ-GTP/bilirubin), protein synthesis indices (total proteins/albumin/A-G ratio), energy production/storage indices (glucose), microscopic findings (fibrosis), hydroxyproline
Fatty liver improvement
- Ethionine
- Ethanol/HFD
hepatic injury indices (ALT/AST/LDH), biliary retention indices (ALP/ γ-GTP/ bilirubin), lipid metabolism indices (total cholesterol/LDL /HDL/TG), microscopic findings (lipid accumulation), hepatic lipids (total lipids [TL]/TG/cholesterol)
Antioxidant activity
- CCl4
- Fecl3
1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)-scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), antioxidant enzymes (SOD/GPx /GR/GST/catalase)

Preservation of cardiovascular & cerebrovascular functions

Improvement of hypercholesterolemia
- High-cholesterol diet (LDLR-knockout, rabbits)
Blood lipids (total cholesterol/LDL/HDL/TG), aortic atheroma (Sudan IV), liver microscopic findings (lipid accumulation), hepatic lipids (TL/TG/cholesterol)
Regulation of blood pressure
- Spontaneously-hypertensive rat
- Angiotensin II infusion
In vitro/vivo angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), blood pressure (-30 mmHg), heart rate
Blood flow improvement
- Platelet-rich plasma
- FeCl3
- Collagen + epinephrine
Platelet aggregation, carotid/femoral artery occlusion time, respiratory artery occlusion & death, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, nitric oxide (NO)
- Angina (ischemia-reperfusion)
- Congestive heart failures (pressure-overload, volume-overload)
Angina (infarction), congestive heart failure, arrhydmia, cardiac muscle fibrosis, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), CPK-MB, myoglobin, troponin, pro-BNP, LDH
Stroke attenuation
- Ischemic stroke (MCAO, photothrombosis)
Hemorrhagic stroke (collagenase VII)
Stroke (infarction, TTC), behaviors, learning/memory, blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration, cytotoxicity
Parkinsonism improvement
- 6-Hydroxydopamine
TH expression, Pole test, movement (rotating behavior)
Dementia (Alzheimer disease) improvement
- Scopolamine
- AF64A (cholinotoxin)
- Kainic acid (hippocampus)
- βA4 (amyloid peptide)
Learning/memory, acetylcholinesterase (ACh) activity, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-expressing neurons, movement, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), IL-1β
- Normal animals
- Cyclophosphamide-induced bone marrow suppression
Complete blood counts (CBC), differential counts, platelets, reticulocytes, hematocrit (PCV), bone marrow cellularity

Regulation of intestinal physiology and function

Gastric ulcer improvement
- Diverse models
Stress (WIRS), alcohol (100% ethanol), gastric acid secretion (pylorus ligation/HCl), drugs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/reserpine), histamine, chronic (acetic acid)
Helicobacter pylori elimination
- H. pylori inoculation
Bactericidal CLO test, culture & identification, microscopic findings (inflammation & bacteria observation)
Improvement of intestinal motility (gastric spasm)
- Charcoal propulsion
- Organ/tissue bath
Intestinal motility (charcoal propulsion), smooth muscle constriction, gastric emptying time
Diarrhea improvement
- Charcoal propulsion
- Organ/tissue bath
- Acetylcholine
Feces number, feces weight, intestinal motility (charcoal propulsion), hydration
Colitis attenuation
- 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid
- Dextran sulfate sodium
Colon/thymus/spleen weights, microscopic findings (inflammation/ulcer), CD4, CD8, myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ

Improvement of dry eye, eyesight, aging & cytotoxicity

Dry eye improvement
- Atropine + dry air
- Lacrimal gland surgery
- Shirmer paper
Corneal penetration (fluorescein), lacrimation (Shirmer test), histopathology (mucin excretion)
Eyesight improvement
- FeCl3
- Aldose reductase (AR)
- Rat eyes
Rhodopsin synthesis, DPPH-scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), AR inhibition
- Natural aging
- D-Galactose
- Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM)
Gross indices (movement/appearance), biochemical indices (pro-oxidants/antioxidants/ immune reaction), structural indices (body weight/organ weight/microscopic findings), functional indices (learning/memory, reproductive function)
- Neuronal cells
- Neural stem cells
- Mesenchymal stem cells
- Microglial cells
- Macrophages
- Many available cells
MTT, LDH, apoptosis (TUNEL), gene expression, cytokines, proliferation

Tumor prevention

Tumoricidal activity
- Diverse solid tumors (nude, orthotopic)
- Ascites tumors
Cytotoxicity, growth inhibition, survivability, neovascularization (CD34)
Metastasis inhibition
- Diverse solid tumors
Liver tumor metastasis, lung tumor metastasis
- Matrigel
Aortic ring sprouting (ARS), chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis, Matrigel angiogenesis

Preservation of teeth & oral health

Dental caries prevention
- Organic acids in dental plaque
- Dental caries ratio
Plaque index & pH, demineralization remineralization, Streptococcus mutans number & anti-bacterial activity, glucosyl transferase inhibition, cell adherance inhibition, acid production inhibition
Teeth whitening
- Beagle dogs
Whitening (chromametry)
Preservation of gingival health
- Chronic gingivitis/periodontitis
- Acute gangrenous/ulcerative gingivitis
Anti-microbial activity (Prophyromonas, Prevotella, Actinibacillus, Eikenella), inflammation, methyl mercaptan (halitosis) production

Regulation of behaviors & mental state

Sleep promotion
- Pentobarbital (hexobarbital)
- Caffeine
Pentobarbital-sleeping time
Enhancement of cognitive function (concentration/memory)
- Normal animals
- Scopolamine, AF64A
- Aging, SAM, D-galactose
Learning/memory (avoidances, water-maze)
Stress relief
- Restraint stress
- Cold restraint stress
- Water immersion restraint stress(WIRS)
Corticosterone, interleukin-6 (IL-6), body weight, thymus/spleen/liver/adrenal weights, complete blood count (CBC), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total cholesterol, gastric ulcer


Anti-aging/wrinkle care
- Hairless mice-UV
- MMP-1
Wrinkle care – collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibition, GSH, antioxidant enzymes (SOD/GPx/GR/GST/catalase)
Skin whitening
- Tyrosinase
- Brown guinea pigs
Tyrosinase inhibition, skin color & tone (chromametry), melanogenesis inhibition, microscopic findings (melanocytes)
Skin moisturizing
- Keratinocytes
- Tewametry
Total evaporated water loss, ceramide
Wound healing
- Whole skin excision
Reepithelization velocity, scab shedding, tissue tension, microscopic findings (reepithelization)
Burn healing
- Comb burns
Reepithelization velocity, scab shedding, tissue tension, microscopic findings (hair follicle preservation/reepithelization), hair regrowth, blood vessel preservation (latex)

Immunomodulation & anti-inflammation

- Macrophages
- Carbon-loaded mice
- Listeria challenge
- Sarcoma-180 cells
NO production, carbon clearance, CBC (lymphocytes), T-/B-lymphocytes proliferation, host resistance (L. monocytogenes), tumor prevention (survivability)
Atopic dermatitis improvement
- Compound-48/80
- Trinitrochlorobenzene
- Dinitrofluorobenzene
- NC/NGa mice + DNCB (staphylococcus)
Mast cells, histamine (β-hexosaminidase) release, anaphylactic shock (compound-48/80), acute itching, chronic itching, edema (ear swelling), vascular leakage, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, total immunoglobulin E
Contact dermatitis improvement
- Langerhan’s cells
- Mast cells
local lymph node (LLN) weight, bromodeoxyuridine, Langerhan’s (dendritic) cells CD86/CD54 expression
Acne improvement
- Isopropyl myristate
- Propionibacterium acne inoculation
Comedogenesis inhibition, microscopic findings (folliculitis/cornification), P. acne elimination
Dermatophytosis improvement
- Trichophyton inoculation
- Candida inoculation
Trichophyton dermatitis, Candida vaginitis
Asthma attenuation
- Ovalbumin intratrachial inoculation
Bronchial smooth muscle dilatation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, respiratory function (plethysmography)
Arthritis attenuation
- Collagen type II (rheumatoid arthritis)
- Monosodium iodoacetate (osteoartritis)
- Anterior cruciate ligament transection (osteoarthritis)
Edema (plethysmography), clinical scores, TNF-α, cyclooxygenase-II, inducible NO synthase, prostaglandin E2, NO, microscopic findings (inflammation/ankylosis), peptidoglycan (Safranin O), collagen-II